Coralline News

Editor: Dr. Y.M. Chamberlain

Institute of Marine Sciences
 University of Portsmouth Ferry Road
Portsmouth PO4 9LY UK
Telephone: +44 1962 779427

No. 20 --------------------------------------- May 1995

From the Editor

In March I visited the Natural History Museum and Institute, Chiba, Japan at the invitation of Dr Masahiko Miyata. It was a great pleasure both to visit the Museum and to go to Okinawa in the subtropical south of Japan to collect specimens. I would like to convey my thanks to Dr Miyata and his colleagues for giving me such a warm welcome to their country. I am greatly looking forward to returning to Chiba in October.

I plan to circulate a new address list with Coralline News 21 and have been asked to include fax and e-mail numbers. Please could you all let me have these by 31 December 1995.

Very many thanks to all who have sent articles, reprints and information about publications. Applications for the Coral Reef Symposium (p.6) should be sent as soon as possible.




From: Mark and Diane Littler, Department of Botany, Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, DC 20560, USA.

CLOD (Coralline Lethal Orange Disease)

Mark and Diane (see Publications Received no. 12) have been studying a predatory /pathogenic bacterium that attacks and kills all coralline algae tested in the South Pacific. Eighteen species of the genera Porolithon, Hydrolithon, Neogoniolithon, Mesophyllum, Lithophyllum, Lithothamnion, Jania, Amphiroa and Corallina have been seen to succumb so far, but it does not affect Peyssonnelia or Galaxaura. It has been seen from Cook Islands, Fiji (Derek Keats also saw it there), Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. It mainly affects the ridge builder Hydrolithon onkodes. Mark and Diane would be pleased to hear from anyon else who has observed this organism.


From: Jason Hall-Spencer, University Marine Biological Station
Millport, Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland KA28 0EG.

Lithothamnion corallioides (P. & H.Crouan) P. & H.Crouan may not extend into Scottish waters.

Maerl beds are relatively abundant off Shetland, Orkney and throughout Scotland's west coast, with over 100 reported sites (Batters 1901; Deegan et al. 1973; Farrow 1983; Farrow et al. 1979; Maggs & Guiry 1987, 1989; Hall-Spencer 1994; Howson et al. 1994 and references therein) - more than off any other European country. As part of a wider study concerning the effects of scallop dredging on maerl habitats, I have recently examined anew the maerl of several sites within Loch Sween and the Firth of Clyde. In addition the taxonomic status of Scottish herbarium collections held by Glasgow University (GL), the British

Geological Survey (BGS) and the Natural History Museum (BM) was investigated.

Historically the species composition of Scottish maerl deposits has been known to include Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) Adey & McKibbin and Lithothamnion glaciale Kjellman which have been recorded (e.g. by Batters 1901) under various of the epithets included in synonymy by Irvine & Chamberlain (1994 pp.183 & 212). There has also been a string of records for L. corallioides in Scottish waters (e.g. Batters 1901; Adey & Adey 1973; Lumb 1986; Maggs 1986; Davies 1989; Smith 1990; Holt & Davies 1991; Howson et al. 1994). This species has generally slender branches that often resemble L. glaciale but can also be confused with P. calcareum. Studies by Cabioch (1966) and Irvine & Chamberlain (1994, figs 74, 75, table 4) have shown that vegetative and reproductive anatomical features can be used to distinguish among these three species. In particular P. calcareum can be differentiated from the Lithothamnion species by the presence of non-flared epithallial cells as opposed to the flared ones of L. glaciale and L. corallioides. The Lithothamnion species can be distinguished from each other by the presence of cortical cells in L. glaciale that are neatly aligned, whereas those of L. coralloides are larger, irregularly shaped, and fused to form spreading, spidery coenocytes.

On the basis of these, and further means of identification, plants in BM collected and identified by Batters as L. corallioides, and included in his species list (Batters 1901), were examined. All of these specimens proved to be P. calcareum. This confirmed the results of my own maerl surveys and my examination of other archived Scottish collections in which P. calcareum and L. glaciale were abundant but no L. corallioides was found. It can be concluded, therefore, that L. corallioides is a southern species in the British Isles (there are confirmed reports from southwest Ireland and England - see Irvine & Chamberlain 1994) and that it is replaced by L. glaciale as a companion to P. calcareum in the maerl beds of Scotland.

ADEY, W.H. & ADEY, P. 1973. Studies on the biosystematics and ecology of the epilithic crustose Corallinaceae of the British Isles. British Phycological Journal 8: 343-407.

BATTERS E.A.L. 1901. Marine algae. In: Fauna, Flora and Geology of the Clyde Sea Area (ed. by G.F. Scott Elliott, M. Laurie & J. Barclay Murdock) Glasgow. pp.16-30.

CABIOCH J. 1966. Contribution à l'étude morphologique, anatomique et systématique de deux Méobésiées: Lithothamnium calcareum (Pallas) Areschoug et Lithothamnium corallioides Crouan. Botanica Marina 9: 33-53.

DEEGAN C., KIRBY R., RAE I. & FLOYD R. 1973. The superficial deposits of the Firth of Clyde and its sea lochs. Institute of Geological Sciences Report No. 73/9, HMSO, London. pp.42.

FARROW G.E. 1983. Recent sediments and sedimentation in the Inner Hebrides. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 83: 91-105.

FARROW G., SCOFFIN T., BROWN B. & CUCCI M. 1979. An underwater television survey of facies variation on the inner Scottish shelf between Colonsay, Islay and Jura. Scottish Journal of Geology 1: 13-29.

HALL-SPENCER J. 1994. Biological studies on nongeniculate Corallinaceae. PhD Thesis, University of London. 269 pp.

HOLT R. & DAVIES M. 1991. Sealochs of the northern Firth of Clyde. Marine Nature Conservation Review Surveys of Scottish sealochs Report no. 1147 1, 122.

HOWSON C.M., CONNOR D.W. & HOLT R.H.F. 1994. The Scottish sealochs - an account of surveys undertaken for the Marine Nature Conservation Review. (Contractor: University Marine Biological Station, Millport). Joint Nature Conservation Committee Report No. 164 (Marine Nature Conservation Review Report MNCR/SR/27).

IRVINE, L.M. & CHAMBERLAIN, Y.M. 1994. Seaweeds of the British Isles.Vol.1, Part 2B, Corallinales and Hildenbrandiales. HMSO, London. pp.vii, 1-269.

LUMB C.M. 1986. Loch Sween sublittoral survey, August 27 to September 8 1984. Nature Conservancy Council CSD Report no.722. 59pp.

MAGGS C.A. 1986. Scottish marine macroalgae: a distributional checklist, biogeographical analysis and literature abstract. Nature Conservancy Council CSD Report No.635. 137pp.

MAGGS C.A. & GUIRY M.D. 1987. Gelidiella calcicola sp. nov. (Rhodophyta) from the British Isles and Northen France. British Phycological Journal 22: 417-434.

MAGGS C.A. & GUIRY M.D. 1989. A re-evaluation of the crustose red algal genus Cruoria and the family Cruoriaceae. British Phycological Journal 24: 253-269.

SMITH S.M. 1990. Check-list of the marine fauna and flora of Loch Sween and the adjacent seas. Nature Conservancy Council CSD Report No.1143.


1. BOUDOURESQUE, C. & BOUDOURESQUE-PERRET, M.M. 1987. A Checklist of the Benthic Marine Algae of Corsica. GIS Posidonie publ., Marseilles.
2. CHAMBERLAIN, Y.M. & NORRIS, R.E. 1994. Hydrolithon pellire sp. nov., a mastophoroid crustose coralline red algal epiphyte from South Africa. Phycologia 33: 291-297.
3. DETHIER, M. 1994. The ecology of intertidal algal crusts: variation within a functional group. Journal of Experimental Biology and Ecology 177: 37-71.
4. FREIWALD, A. & HENRICH, R. 1994. Reefal coralline algal build-ups within the Arctic Circle: morphology and sedimentary dynamics under extreme environmental seasonality. Sedimentology 41: 963-984.
5. HALL-SPENCER, J. 1994. Biological studies on the nongeniculate Corallinaceae. PhD Thesis, University of London. 269pp.
6. HARVEY, A.S., WOELKERLING, W.J. & WILKS, K.M. 1994. The genus Synarthrophyton (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta) in Australia. Phycologia 33(5): 331-342.
7. JOHANSEN, H.W. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. 1994. Jania (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) in Southern Australia. Australian Systematic Botany 7: 605-625.
8. JOHN, D.M., LAWSON, G.W., PRICE, J.H., PRUD'HOMME VAN REINE, W.F. & WOELKERLING, W.J. 1994. Seaweeds of the western coast of tropical Africa and adjacent islands: a critical assessment. IV. Rhodophyta (Florideae) 4. Genera L-O. Bulletin of the natural History Museum, London (Botany), 24(1): 49-90.
9. KEATS, D.W. & CHAMBERLAIN, Y.M. 1994. Heydrichia groeneri sp. nov.: a new species of crustose coralline alga (Rhodophyta, Sporolithaceae) from South Africa and Namibia. Phycologia 34: 51-57.
10. LABOREL, J., MORHANGE, C., LABOREL DEGUEN, F. & LE CAMPION, J. 1993. Les bioconstructions a Lithophyllum lichenoides, indicatrices des variations relatives du niveau de la mer. Revue d'Arch‚om‚trie 17: 27-30.
11. LEUKART, P. 1994. Field and laboratory studies on depth dependence, seasonality and light requirement of growth in three species of crustose coralline algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 33: 281-290.
12. LITTLER, M.M. & LITTLER, D.S. 1994. A pathogen of reef- building coralline algae discovered in the South Pacific. Coral Reefs 13(4): 202.
13. MORHANGE, C., LABOREL DEGUEN, F., SARTORETTO, S. & LABOREL, J. 1992. Recherches sur les bioconstructions … lithophyllum licheno‹des en Mediterran‚e occidentale. Mediterran‚e 3,4: 67-71.
14. MORSE, D.E., MORSE, A.N.C., RAIMONDI, P.T. & HOOKER, N. 1944. Morphogen-based chemical flypaper for Agaricia humilis coral larvae. Biological Bulletin 186: 172-181.
15. MORTON, O. 1994. Marine Algae of Northern Ireland. Ulster Museum, Botanic Gardens, Belfast, pp.i-vii + 1-123.
16. PERRET-BOUDOURESQUE, M. & SERIDI, H. 1989. Inventaire des Algues Benthiques d'Algerie. GIS Posidonie publ., Marseille, pp. 1-116.
17. PILLER W.E. 1994. Nullipora ramosissima Reuss, 1847 - a rediscovery. Beitr„ge zur Pal„ontologie 19: 181-189.
18. POMPIONE, R.J. & CAVALIERE, A.R. 1989. Scanning electron microscopy of the coralline alga, Mesophyllum mesomorphum (Foslie) Adey (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta) from Bermuda. Journal of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 63: 173-177.
19. PRUD'HOMME VAN REINE, W.F., HAROUN, R.J. & AUDIFFRED, P.A.J. 1994. A reinvestigation of Macaronesian seaweeds as studied by A.Piccone with remarks on those studies by A.Grunow. Nova Hedwigia 58: 67-121.
20. RASSER, M. & PILLER W.E. 1994. Re-documentation of Paleocene coralline algae of Austria, described by Lemoine (1930). Beitr„ge zur Pal„ontologie 19: 219-225.
21. REYES, J. & AFONSO-CARRILLO, J. 1995. Morphology and distribution of nongeniculate coralline algae (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta) on the leaves of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa (Cymodoceaeceae). Phycologia 34: 179-190.
22. SARTORETTO, S. 1994. Structure et dynamique d'un nouveau type de bioconstruction … Mesophyllum lichenodes (Ellis) Lemoine (Corallinales, Rhodophyta). Comptes Rendues Acad‚mie des Sciences Paris, Sciences de la Vie 317: 156-160.
23. SUZUKI, Y., KUMA, K., KUDO, I. & MATASUNAGA, K. 1995. Iron requirement of the brown macroalgae Laminaria japonica, Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae) and the crustose coralline alga Lithophyllum yessoense (Rhodophyta), and their competition in the northern Japan Sea. Phycologia 34: 201-205.
24. TOWNSEND, R.A., WOELKERLING, W.J., HARVEY, A.S. & BOROWITZKA, M. 1995. An account of the red algal genus Sporolithon (Sporolithaceae, Corallinales) in southern Australia. Australian Systematic Botany 8: 85-121.
25. TYRRELL, B. & JOHANSEN, H.W. 1995. Reproductive and regenerative strategies of Lithothrix aspergillum (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) in southern California. Phycologia 34: 39-44.
26. WILKS, K.M. & WOELKERLING, W.J. 1994. An account of southern Australian species of Phymatolithon (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta) with comments on Leptophytum. Australian Systematic Botany 7: 183-223.
27. WOELKERLING, W.J., IRVINE, L.M. & HARVEY, A.S. 1993. Growth- forms in non-geniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta). Australian Systematic Botany 6: 277-293.

NEW TAXA AND RECOMBINATIONS (numbers refer to "publications received" list above) 2. H. pellire sp.nov., Y.Chamberlain & R.Norris, p.291.
7. Jania parva Johansen et Womersley sp.nov., p.609.
7. J. minuta Johansen et Womersley sp.nov., p.613.
7. J. pulchella (Harvey) Johansen et Womersley comb.nov., p.619.
9. Heydrichia groeneri sp.nov, D.Keats & Y.Chamberlain, p.51. 24. Sporolithon durum (Foslie) Townsend et Woelkerling in Townsend et al., p.86.
26. Phymatolithon repandum (Foslie) Wilks & Woelkerling comb. nov., p.190.
24. P. masonianum Wilks & Woelkerling sp.nov., p.195.
Additional.... Hydrolithon gardineri (Foslie) Verheij & Prud'homme van Reine comb.nov. in Verheij, E. & Prud'homme van Reine, W.F. (1993). Seaweeds of the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia. Blumea 37: 451. (omitted in CNews 19).


MORTON, O. 1995. Marine Algae of Northern Ireland. Ulster Museum, Botanic Gardens, Belfast, pp.1-vii + 1-123. Order form at end of Newsletter.
BOUDOURESQUE, C. & BOUDOURESQUE-PERRET, M.M. 1987. A Checklist of the Benthic Marine Algae of Corsica. GIS Posidonie publ., Marseille.
PERRET-BOUDOURESQUE, M. & SERIDI, H. 1989. Inventaire des Algues Benthiques d'Algerie. GIS Posidonie publ., Marseille, pp. 1-116.

The above two publications may be purchased from: GIS Posidonie, Facult‚ des Sciences de Luminy, Route L‚on Lachamp, 13288 Marseille cedex 09, France.

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Derek Keats,
updated 02/01/01